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AVReAl - Program Description

Program compiled in following versions:

Win32 and Linux versions requires drivers/libraries for FT2232-based adapters support.

WIN32 version uses for LPT-adapters

W95/W98 - built-in module for direct port access
Windows NT4, Windows 2000, Windows XP 32 bit, Windows 7 32 bit - driver DLportIO
Windows XP 64 bit, Windows 7 64 bit - driver DLportIO x64

DLportIO - driver from DriverLINX package from Scientific Software Tools, Inc. (http://www.sstnet.com).

AVReAl designed for Atmel AVR microcontrollers programming in low-voltage ISP (in-circuit serial programming) mode. Supported adapters and adapter to microcontroller connections discussed in part "adapters").

In "fbprg-mode" all not used for programming process LPT data outputs can be used as "power supply" (switch -ap).

Programming without crystal also allowed, specified by switch -o0. This mode may be usable even if crystal exists for avoiding chip error "EEPROM not read by ISP for high crystal frequencies".

Input files - INTEL HEX. HEX-file loaded as list, not as array. As result "byte 0xFF in .hex" and "not mentioned byte" will retain as differ situations and only needed memory locations will be programmed and verified. Other locations can be verified for FF state by request (see switch -v+).

For all who like patch HEX-files manually: if checksum not match AVReAl ask "ignore?” 'Y' (or 'y') forces to this an all other checksum errors will be ignored (but checksum byte must be present in HEX file record).
For manual patches simplification (particularly for "formatted" records in EEPROM) all white space characters removed from lines before analyze. You can have HEX-file like this line

:08 0001 00 00 01 0203 0405 0 6 0 7 DB

All empty lines and lines started with '#' also ignored, you can put own comments directly into HEX-file.

Program check input file for records overlapping (can be produced by linker with erroneous command file).


avreal [switches] [[-c] code_file [[-d] data_file]]
avreal [switches] -d data_file (If you want write only to EEPROM)

File names without related switches (-w -r -v) ignored. More about switches -c, -d see below, after other switches description.


-h (-?)
Short help and supported chip list.
avreal +name -h 
('+name' must be before '-h') list of fuses supported for microcontroller 'name'

set information level to not more than
-ie or -i1errors
-iw or -i2warnings
-i or -i3info (default)
-id or -i4debug
-it or -i5trace
progress bar options
-ip-disable progress bar at all levels
-ipauto, enabled at level "info" and above (default)
-ip+enable progress bar at all levels
Note: -% is obsolete switch now, alias to -id. In .bat files -%% must be used because of special meaning of symbol %.

set microcontroller type. <name> can be with or without 'AT' prefix, as listed by 'avreal -h'.

"adapter" group
-k, -K
Wait for pressing adapter's key before programming start. Two switch forms have different avreal stages execution order.
-k: In this variant files are loaded first. If there is an error when file is loading, the adapter interface is not created.
Adepter outputs are enabled before key check starting because inputs of some adapters are enabled simultaniously with outputs.
-K: In this variant files loading starts after keypress. This allows to create script file with avreal call in loop. If the key is pressed after project building, avreal will use new programming files.

  • FT2232-based adapters
    At least one of parameters s=SERNO,d=DESCRIPTION
    for Linux in addition v=VID,p=PID
    Example: "-ps=FT01001A,p=6003"
    -pd="Dual RS232 A"for FT2232C, FT2232L, FT2232D
    -pd="Dual RS232-HS A"for FT2232H
    -pd="Quad RS232-HS A"for FT4232H
    -p? - get FTDI device list
  • LPT-adapters
    For WIN32, Linux - hexadecimal number
    1,2,3 - set LPT by port number (predefined values 378/278/3BC used for address), >0x100 - set LPT by base address, LPT2 by default.
    For Linux - parallel device name, f.e. /dev/parport0
    For FreeBSD - parallel device name, f.e. /dev/ppi0

Set microcontroller clock frequency. SPI SCK frequency will be calculated with 5% margin and SCK low/high settings from microcotroller datasheet.
Set SPI SCK frequency.
number can be integer or floating point number, optionally with frequncy units Hz, kHz, MHz.
For backward compatibility the default units is kHz. If -o not specified the default frequency is 800 (0.8MHz)
"AVReAl must generate XTAL". <number> is optional additional divider for slower SCK generation. Slower (relative to XTAL) SCK required for controllers with CKDIV fuse enabled:
For STK adapters LED line used for XTAL generation. Altera ByteBlaster (ByteBlasterMV) must be slightly upgraded). ByteBlaster-II already has connection to header pin 8. Xilinx parallel download cable has no free line and -o0 can't be used.

Use last 2 bytes of code flash memory as erase counter. AVReAl read and say this number after all operations, increment and write-back after chip erasing. If <number> specified it will be writed to counter instead of incremented read value.
-n ignored if write to flash requested and last 2 code locations occupied by code.

Erase chip
'-' keep EEPROM content by read/erase/write-back sequence. This operation will be done even for ATmega103. If you want to use EESAVE feature of ATmega103 you must set fuse EESAVE by separate avreal call.

-1, -2, -3, -4, -5
Increase all programming delays by 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 5 for programming at lower voltages.

Blank check
-b both code and data
-bc code space only
-bd data space only

Read from controller to file[s]

Write to controller
'+' - if chip NOT erased in this session AND writing to EEPROM requested: fill all not used in HEX-file locations with FF.
Auto-erase operation not performed by -w switch. Use -ew for non-blank chip.
'p' - use polling.

Verify (only used in HEX-file positions)
'+' - verify FF in unused locations

Set lock level # = 1 (LB1 programmed) or 2 (LB1 and LB2 programmed)
additional '+' change lock bits and fuses write order, lock bits will be writed first. Needed for avoid 90s4433 BODEN fuse bug.

-f<fuse list>
Program fuses.
<fuse list> must be fusename=value,bytename=value... value - HEXADECIMAL value without any prefix or suffix (for example AE instead of 0xAE or AEh). For one-bit fuses mnemonics ON (write to 0) and OFF (erase to 1) added.
ATTENTION! one-letter fuse aliaces not supported since avreal 1.23
Fusenames with value range and comments, available aliases for specified microcontroller can be listed by
avreal +chipname -?
Keywords _low, _high, _ext, _lock used for bytename. You can specify fuses by byte basis. _lock mark lock and BLB fuses byte but lock-bit positions ignored, for chip lock operation switch -l must be used.
fusename=val and bytename=val can be mixed, but whole fuse byte must be specified either by bytename or by fusename combination.
    allowed:     -f_low=C3,_high=F4,blb1=2
    not allowed: -f_lock=FB,blb1=2
Fuses writed or verified by using switches -W or -V with switch -F. Fuses not listed in -F remains unchanged except BLB group for mega161, mega163, because of it can be erased by -E not depend of -F existance. BLB* bits behave as lock-bits. It is impossible to write '1' (erase) to any programmed BLB bit without erasing all chip. AVReAl display warning and end exit if such operation requested.
Current state of ISP-supported fuses displayed even without -F.
AVReAl provide extended osccal support.
Attention! SPIEN and RSTDISBL fuses can be programmed by ISP for some controllers (see datasheets). Be careful: SPIEN by default programmed to '0'. -fspien=1 or -fspien=off will erase this fuse and disable further low-voltage ISP. The same will be the result of -frstdisbl=0 or -frstdisbl=on.

Execute requested operations even chip ID not match or programming adapter not found. Not recognized (may be locked) chip will be erased by -E even without -!, chip recognition will be repeated.

Combinations of switches allowed:

-v -w      write, then verify
-e- -w -v  erase with EEPROM restoring, write, verify
-b -w      blank check, write IF BLANK

If two filenames exist without -C and -D switches then 1st is file for flash code space, 2nd (if exist) for data EEPROM space. If switches -C and -D used it mark files not depend if it sequence. Spaces between switch and file name not required, you can use -cfoo.hex or -c foo.hex. If there are only one filename and neither -c nor -d specified then this file contain information for code space (FLASH). But if any records exist above top FLASH address for specified chip than this information used for data space (EEPROM).
Example for 90s2313. If single HEX-file contain records for addresses 0x800-0x87F then this bytes will be programmed to EEPROM in range 0x00 to 0x7F.

Switches order doesn't care, operations always executed in order E B W V L. Programming aborted if blank check or verify fail.


-e -b -w -v -l2

mean: erase, if blank then write, if verified then lock.

tiny12 -w -c foo.hex -c*osccal=1f3 -fcksel=3,boden=0
Write file foo.hex into flash memory, write OSCCAL value at location 0x1F3 of flash memory, program fuse BODEN and set CKSEL group of fuses to state 0011 binary.
Additional features

There are special form of -c -d switches for insertimg of special parameters into code and/or data space:
-d*name=offset,ext - as byte to EEPROM
-c*name=offset,ext - as byte to flash (can be read by LPM)
-c?name=offset,ext - as part of LDI commands started form offset

name of special parameter, can contain alpha name and numeric qualifier.
starting byte address - must be specified in hexadecimal form without prefix or suffix.
additional argument for command

HEX-files must contain records for special parameters, avreal only override default values in your program.
As special parameters can be used:

Internal RC-generator calibration byte

Keyword osccal with calibration byte number (osccal0, osccal1, ...). For calibration byte 0 number can be omitted.
correction for OSCCAL value from chip. This correction can be used for supply voltages differ from voltage during factory calibration process. If calibrated value not fit in range [0..255] it will be limited and warning message generated.

1. Write 3'd (starting from 0) OSCCAL value as byte at address 0x3F in data EEPROM.
2. Write 0 OSCCAL value decreased by 3 as part of LDI command.
   public osccal_ldi
   ldi R16,0xFF
   out OSCCAL,R16

Find osccal_ldi value in MAP file produced by linker. Let it is equal to 0x120 (byte address, word 0x90). Execute command:

avreal +tiny12 -ewv -c foo.hex -c?osccal=120,-3

Device serail number
You can write sequential serial numbers in your devices.

keyword serno with serial number length in bytes (1 to 4).
name of text file with serial number, assigned for current device.
Serial number writed in binary form, low byte first. This number incremented and writed back into text file only after successful writing into chip memory. Text file will be overwritten, old content lost. Number not changed if verification failed or if verification only (w/o writing) was requested.
1. Write 20byte serial number into data EEPROM from address 0x12. Number stored in file serno.txt.
2. Write 3-byte serial number as part of LDI commands. Number stored in file proj.serno
   public serno_load
   ldi R16,0xFF ; low byte
   ldi R17,0xFF ; middle byte
   ldi R18,0xFF ; high byte
Let serno_load value form map-file is 0x120.

Any byte data

keyword bytes with data length.
Hexadecimal string. Low significant byte must be placed first, so, for writing 0xDEADBEEF at address 0x100 command must be

FT2232-based USB-adapters

Channel A can be used for FT2232C,FT2232L,FT2232D and channels A and B can be used for FT2232H, FT4232H. Only hardware serial interface engine pins TDI (adbus1), TDO (adbus2) and TCK (adbus0) can be used as MOSI, MISO and SCK pins but inversion can be specifed.
By default TMS (adbus3) used as RESET, ENABLE not used. PINMAP argument can be used for changing pin assignments.
Attention! Beginning from version 1.28r0 complete adapter signal set with '~' inversion control supported for FT2232-based adapters.
enable pin for FT2232-based adapters is processed in the same way as for LPT-based so inversion mark '~' is required for buffers with active low enable input.

Serial number and/or description of used adapter can be designated in -p switch. Linux users must specify FT2232 VID and PID when them differ from default FTDI VID/PID.


Adapter can be configured by mapping interface signals to adapter pins. PINMAP argument of swithes (-am and -aft2232) can be in one of two forms
=filename, for example

:configuration_string, for example

Configuration file contains records parameter = value, one per line. Record can define mapping for interface signal or adapter name (used for diagnostic messages).

Adapter name (parameter name) can be set by record

name = any string

Programmer signals (parameters mosi, miso, sck, reset, xtal) can be set by records

signal_name = [~]pin_name

Inversion mark '~' denote that there are an inverter between known for avreal part of hardware (LPT connector or FT2232 chip pin) and contorller pin. Internal LPT port inversions handled by avreal and must not be marked in mapping file.

Allowed pin names for

FT2232 adbus0..adbus7, acbus0..acbus3.
FT2232H dbus0..dbus7, cbus0..cbus7 for both channels.
FT4232H dbus0..dbus7 for both channels that supports MPSSE.
LPT d0..d7 alf init strobe select ask busy error pe online.
Attention! Only d0..d7 LPT pins can be used for adapter outputs.

key record defines pin that triggers programming when swuitch -k is used. Inversion mark '~' stands active low level.

Special pin groups set, power, enable, led_ok, led_error are used for programmer (adapter) control. Comma-separated pin list can be used in these groups records. For example, power pins for fbprg-like adapter can be described as power=d0,d1,d2,d7 and STK200/STK300 bus driver enables as enable=~d2,~d3. Inversion mark before pin name denotes that this signal is active low.

Before programming start pins of group set are activated, led_ok, led_error are set in passive state. If power group isn't empty, it's pins are activated with 0.3 second delay before next operation. Then avreal makes pins of group enable active and starts programming. After programming completion avreal acivates led_ok or led_error pins depending on operation result and deactivates enable group then power group. Pins in set group stay active.

led_ok, led_error signals must be independent on enable otherwise they will be disabled.
-az should be used with FT2232-based adapters for proper status indication.

Configuration file searching order:

Configuration string contains records like configuration file records (excluding name) separated by ':' character. Trailing separator is allowed but is not mandatory.

Examples for Amontec JTAGkey configuration strings
Using TMS as RESET

Using SRST as RESET (second enable pin needed for SRST output enable)

Example for system of two controllers connected together by SPI.
Let controllers connected as shown.

Controllers will free to communicate via SPI when adapter outputs are in hi-Z state.

For controller 1 programming use this mapping file:

name=1'st controller programmer
sck = D0
reset = D1
set =~D3

For controller 2 programming use this mapping file:

name=2'nd controller programmer
set = ~D0
reset = D1
sck = D3


AVReAl return completion status to operation system.

All OK.
Not blank or verification failed
Can't do requested job: HEX file too large for used chip or one of BLB fuses can't be writed (attempt to write '1' over '0' without chip erasing).
Microcontroller not detected
Programming cable/adapter not connected or "programming entry" sequence failed
File IO error or invalid format of input file
Not enough memory
Invalid command line (including invalid LPT number)

p.s. Sorry my English :-(